Since early March, governors have followed public health experts’ recommendations and issued stay-at-home executive orders to encourage social distancing to minimize coronavirus exposure and protect residents’ health and safety.
However, social distancing has disrupted daily life and impacted state economies. State and local governments have experienced declines in income and sales tax revenue due to the pause on business activity. States also have an unprecedented number of people filing for unemployment benefits and other public programs, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Medicaid coverage.
With many states’ stay-at-home orders expiring, a number of governors have announced plans to reopen their economies, while others have extended their stay-at-home orders. Governors are making hard decisions about the public’s overall well-being as they decide when to resume non-essential medical procedures and a larger-scale reopening of their economies based on the availability of personal protective equipment and other factors.
This chart describes each governor’s stay-at-home order, penalties for noncompliance, and the dates when governors plan to reopen their economies and resume non-essential, medical, surgical, and dental procedures. It does not include local restrictions imposed by counties or municipalities.
|State||Stay-At-Home Order in Place?||Effective Dates||Enforcement and Penalties for Non-Compliance||Date(s) for reopening the economy?||Date(s) for resuming non-essential medical, surgical, and dental procedures?
|Alabama||Yes||April 4 – April 30||Not mentioned.||Alabama is opening in stages, beginning with:
April 30 – retail stores can open at 50% capacity
|Alaska||Yes||March 28 – April 21||A business or organization that fails to cease operation can receive a civil fine up to $1,000/violation. A person or organization that fails to follow the state COVID-19 Mandates may be criminally prosecuted for Reckless Endangerment (Class A misdemeanor) pursuant to Alaska Statute 11.41.250. A person may be fined up to $25,000 for a class A misdemeanor, and a business may be sentenced to pay $2.5 million for a misdemeanor offense that results in death, or $500,000 for a Class A misdemeanor offense that does not result in death.||Alaska is opening in stages, beginning with:
April 24 – Non-essential retailers can open with restrictions (hair salons can only admit customers by reservation), restaurants can operate at 25% capacity.
A second phase of reopening could begin May 8.
|Arizona||Yes||March 31 – May 15||Prior to any enforcement action, individuals must be notified and given an opportunity to comply. Under statutes regulating the governor’s emergency powers, the governor has “the right to exercise, within the area designated, all police power vested in the state.”||Arizona is opening in stages, beginning with:
May 4 – Non-essential retailers can operate through delivery services.
May 8 – Non-essentials retailers can sell items in stores
The governor hopes to reopen restaurants May 12.
|Arkansas||No (As of April 23)||Although Arkansas never issued a stay-at-home order, businesses that have been closed will begin to reopen:
May 4 – Gyms and athletic facilities
May 11 – Restaurants at 1/3 of their normal capacity
|California||Yes||March 19 – until lifted||The executive order is enforceable under California Government Code section 8665. Any person who refuses or willfully neglects to obey an order shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and can be punished by a fine up to $1,000 or by six months imprisonment.||No date as of May 14||April 22|
|Colorado||Yes||March 26 – April 26||Gives local authorities discretion to determine the best course of action to encourage maximum compliance. Failure to comply with this order could result in penalties up to $1,000 and imprisonment for up to 1 year.||Colorado is reopening in phases, beginning with:
April 27 – Retail businesses can open for curbside delivery.
May 1 – Retail shops can open for in-store customers.
May 4 – People with non-essential office work can return to jobs (offices must be at 50% capacity).
|Connecticut||Yes||March 23 – May 20||Not mentioned.||Connecticut is reopening in phases, beginning May 1 – restaurants, offices, personal services businesses, retail stores, outdoor museums and zoos can reopen.
|No date as of May 14|
|Delaware||Yes||March 24 – May 31||Failure to comply with a declaration of a state of emergency is a criminal offense under 20 Del. C. §§ 3115 (b); 3116 (9); 3122; 3125. State and local law enforcement are authorized to enforce the provisions of any state of emergency declaration.||Delaware is tentatively scheduled to begin reopening May 20 – restaurants’ outdoor areas, non-essential retail, offices, personal services businesses, zoos, outdoor recreation activities, and university research programs can open.
|No date as of May 14|
|District of Columbia||Yes||April 1 – May 15||Any individual or entity that knowingly violates the order shall be subject to all civil, criminal, and administrative penalties authorized by law, including $1,000 fines, summary suspension or revocation of business licensure. Any individual who willfully violates the order may be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than 90 days. An officer or employee of the District of Columbia government that violates this order or any related personnel issuance shall be subject to appropriate administrative discipline, including suspension from duty without pay or removal from office.||No date as of April 30||No date as of April 30|
|Florida||Yes||April 2 – April 30||Not mentioned.||Florida is reopening in phases, beginning with:
May 4 – Restaurants can offer outdoor seating with social distancing, retail can operate at 25% capacity (bars, gyms and personal services will remain closed).
|Georgia||Yes||April 3 – April 30
(Extended to June 12 for those over 65 and with certain medical conditions)
|Any person who violates the order will be guilty of a misdemeanor. Officials enforcing the order should take reasonable steps to provide notice prior to issuing a citation or making an arrest.||April 24 – Gyms, fitness centers, barbers, barbering schools, body art studios, cosmetologists, cosmetology schools, estheticians, esthetics schools, hair designers, massage therapists, nail care schools, tanning facilities, bowling alleys can open.
April 27 – Movie theaters and restaurants may open.
|Hawaii||Yes||March 25 – May 31||Any person who intentionally or knowingly violates the order is guilty of a misdemeanor and may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than a year, or both.||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 31, the following have been allowed to reopen in a few parts of the state:
May 7 – Beaches, piers, docks, and state parks, retail stores, and pet groomers, as well as repair shops.
|Idaho||Yes||March 25 – April 30||Violation of or failure to comply with the order could constitute a misdemeanor punishable by fine, imprisonment or both (see Idaho Code section 56 – 1003(7)(c)).||Idaho is reopening in four stages:
Stage 1: May 1-May 15 (places of worship)
Stage 2: May 16-May 29 (restaurant dining rooms, gyms, hair salons)
Stage 3: May 30-June 12
Stage 4: June 13-June 26 (movie theaters, sporting venues, bars and nightclubs)
|Decision made by individual providers|
|Illinois||Yes||March 25 – May 31||May be enforced by state and local law enforcement (see Illinois Emergency Management Agency Act, Sections 7, 18, and 29 or Illinois Code Chapter 20, section 3305).||No date as of May 14||May 11|
|Indiana||Yes||March 24 – May 1||May be enforced by state and local law enforcement, as well as other governmental entities (state and local health departments), to the extent set forth in Indiana law, including the Emergency Disaster Law.||Indiana is reopening in five stages:
Stage 1: May 1-4
Stage 2: May 4-23 (retail and restaurants open at 50% capacity; personal services open)
Details about stages 3 through 5 will be released in future executive orders.
|Iowa||Yes (through a State Public Health Emergency Declaration)||April 2 – April 30||Not mentioned.||May 1 – In 77 of 99 counties, restaurants, retail stores and other business can reopen at 50% and churches can resume in-person services with social distancing||April 24|
|Kansas||Yes||March 30 – May 3||Not mentioned.||Kansas is reopening in phases, beginning May 4 with houses of worship, retail stores, offices, and restaurant dining at limited capacity.||Decision made by individual hospitals.|
|Kentucky||Guidance in place||In effect for the duration of the state emergency||Not mentioned.||Kentucky is opening the economy in phases, beginning with:
May 11 – Manufacturing, construction, vehicle and vessel dealerships, professional services (at 50% of pre-outbreak capacity), horse racing (without spectators), pet grooming and boarding
May 20 – Retail, houses of worship
May 25 – Social gatherings of no more than 10 people, barbers, salons, cosmetology businesses and similar services
|Kentucky is resuming routine medical procedures in phases:
April 27 – Non-urgent/emergent health services, diagnostic radiology, lab services
May 6 – Outpatient surgeries and other invasive procedures not at hospitals or care facilities
May 13 – Hospitals and care facilities can begin doing non-emergency surgeries at 50% of pre-COVID-19 patient volume
|Louisiana||Yes||March 22 – May 15||The Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness is directed to ensure compliance with the order and is empowered to exercise all authorities pursuant to Louisiana code, including Sections 29:721 and 29:760.||Louisiana is opening in phases, beginning with May 15 when houses of worship and restaurants can open and personal care services can operate at 25% capacity.||April 27|
|Maine||Yes||April 2 – May 31||Order will be enforced by law enforcement as necessary and violations are a class E crime subject to up to 6 months in jail and a $1,000 fine. May also be enforced by government officials who regulate licenses, permits, or any other authorization to operate a business or occupy a building.||Maine is reopening in phases, beginning with:
May 1 – Personal services, limited drive-in, stay-in-your-vehicle religious services, drive-in movie theaters, guided outdoor activities, state parks, auto dealerships, and car washes can open.
A more expansive reopening is tentatively scheduled for June, when restaurants, fitness centers and retail stores could reopen.
|Maryland||Yes||Until termination of the state of emergency and the proclamation of the catastrophic health emergency||Each law enforcement officer of the state or political subdivision will execute and enforce the order. A person who knowingly and willfully violates the order is guilty or a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to imprisonment of up to a year or up to a $5,000 fine, or both.||Maryland is opening in phases, beginning with May 15:
– Retail stores can operate at 50% capacity
– Manufacturing and personal services can operate up to 50% capacity and/or by appointment only
– Houses of worship can operate up to 50% capacity.
|Elective medical and dental procedures at ambulatory, outpatient and medical offices may resume in the first stage of reopening.|
|Massachusetts||Yes||March 24 – May 18||Not mentioned.||No date as of May 14.||No date as of May 14|
|Michigan||Yes||March 24 – May 28||Not mentioned.||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 28, the following have opened:
May 7 – Landscapers, lawn care companies, nurseries, bike repair shops, stores selling nonessential supplies (for curbside pick-up only), garden centers, paint/flooring/carpet areas at big-box retailers, construction.
|The governor has not eased restrictions on nonessential surgeries and procedures, but she is urging people to start scheduling them.|
|Minnesota||Yes||March 27 – May 17||A person who willfully violates this order is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction must be punished by a fine not to exceed $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than 90 days.||Minnesota is opening in phases: April 27 – Some noncritical sectors, including industrial and manufacturing businesses and office-based businesses, may reopen.
May 17 – Nonessential retail businesses may operate at 50% capacity.
|Mississippi||Yes||March 31 – May 11||May be enforced by all state, county, and local law enforcement, as well as by other governmental entities (state and local health departments) and to the fullest extent under Mississippi law (see Mississippi code Sections 33-15-11(b)(5) and 33-15-11(b)(6)).||Mississippi is opening in phases, beginning with:
April 27 – Some retail business can open at 50% capacity.
|Missouri||Yes||April 6 – May 3||Not mentioned.||May 4 – Citizens may return to economic and social activities, but must adhere to social distancing requirements.||May 4|
|Montana||Yes||March 29 – April 24||Enforceable by the Attorney General, Department of Public Health and Human Services, a county attorney, or other local authorities under the direction of a county attorney.||Montana is opening in phases, beginning with:
April 27 – Main street and retail businesses can become operational if they limit capacity and maintain strict physical distancing.
May 4 – Restaurants, bars, breweries and distilleries can provide some in-establishment services.
Schools also have the option to reopen this spring.
|Decision made by individual hospitals|
|Nebraska||No (As of April 30)||Not mentioned.||May 4 – Restaurants can open with 50% capacity, and salons, massage businesses and tattoo parlors limited to 10 people at a time, houses of worship with social distancing||May 4|
|Nevada||Yes||April 2 – May 9||Local governments will be responsible for enforcement.||Nevada is opening in stages, beginning May 7: landscapers, lawn care companies, plan nurseries, bike repair shops, stores selling nonessential supplies (for curbside pickup only), garden centers, paint/flooring/carpet areas at big-box retailers, construction.||April 28|
|New Hampshire||Yes||March 27 – May 31||The Division of Public Health and state or local police have the authority to enforce the order.||New Hampshire is reopening in phases:
May 11 – Retail stores and salons May 18 – Restaurants with outdoor seating
|New Jersey||Yes||March 21 until further notice||Penalties for violations of the order may be imposed under, among other statutes, NJSA App. A:9-49 and 50.||No date set as of May 14.||No date as of May 14|
|New Mexico||Yes||March 24 – May 15||Not mentioned.||New Mexico is reopening in phases beginning May 16 for retail, offices, and call centers at 25% capacity, big box stores at 20% capacity, and houses of worship at 10% capacity.||No date as of May 14|
|New York||Yes||March 22 – May 15||Not mentioned.||New York is opening in phases, beginning May 15.
Only five regions (North Country, Mohawk Valley, Central New York, Finger Lakes, and Southern Tier) may resume construction work and retailers with curbside or in-store pick-up can reopen, child care, parks and trails.
|North Carolina||Yes||March 30 – May 8||Violation is punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor (up to $1,000 fine or up to 30 days imprisonment).||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 22, the following have been allowed to open during Phase 1 (May 8-May 22): Nonessential businesses and retail stores at 50% capacity.||Decision made by individual hospitals|
|North Dakota||No (As of April 30)||May 1 – bars and restaurants, recreational facilities, health clubs and athletic facilities, salons, tattoo studios, all must maintain social distancing; movie theaters must limit capacity at 20%||There was not a restriction on non-essential medical procedures|
|Ohio||Yes||March 23 – May 29||The order may be enforced by State and local law enforcement to the extent set forth in Ohio law.||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 29, there are plans to reopen in phases, beginning with:
May 4 – Manufacturing, distribution, and construction businesses, general office environments
May 12 – Consumer, retail, and services
|May 1 (only for necessary procedures that do not require an overnight stay in a facility or an inpatient hospital admission)|
|Oklahoma||Yes, but limited
(elderly & vulnerable populations only)
|March 24 – May 6||Not mentioned.||April 24 – Personal care businesses
May 1 – Dining, entertainment, movie theaters, sporting venues, gyms, places of worship, tattoo parlors by appointment
|Oregon||Yes||March 23 until further notice||Any person found to be in violation of this Executive Order is subject to the penalties described in ORS 401.990. (ORS 401.990 described penalties for Class C misdemeanors: penalty is fine of $1,250 or up to 30 days imprisonment.)||Oregon is reopening in phases, beginning May 15, 28 of 36 counties can reopen bars, restaurants, personal service businesses, and malls.||May 1|
|Pennsylvania||Yes||March 23 – June 4||Not mentioned.||Pennsylvania is opening in stages:
May 1 – Golf courses, marinas, guided fishing trips, and privately-owned campgrounds.
May 8-24 – Counties in the northwest and north-central parts of the state can begin reopening.
|Rhode Island||Yes||March 28-May 8||Not mentioned.||Rhode Island is opening in stages, beginning with:
May 9 – Earliest date to implement Phase 1 of reopening plan (resume business and social activity on a limited basis).
Rhode Island will be working in collaboration with Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania to reopen the economy.
|South Carolina||Yes||April 6 – May 4||All law enforcement officers are authorized to do whatever may be deemed necessary to maintain peace and good order during the State of Emergency.||South Carolina is opening in stages:
April 20 – Some retail stores (furniture stores, bookstores, music shops, flower stores, clothing stores, department stores, sporting goods stores, flea markets) can open at 20% capacity.
|Decision made by individual hospitals.|
|South Dakota||No (As of April 30)||N/A||N/A|
|Tennessee||Yes||March 31 – April 30||Not mentioned.||Tennessee is reopening in phases:
April 27 – Restaurants at 50% capacity
April 29 – Retail outlets at 50% capacity
May 1 – Gyms and exercise facilities
|Texas||Yes||March 31 – April 30||Failure to comply with any executive order issued during the COVD-19 disaster is an offense punishable by a fine not to exceed $1,000, confinement in jail for a term not to exceed 180 days, or both fine and confinement.||May 1 – Retail stores, restaurants, movie theaters, malls, museums, and libraries can open at 25% capacity.||April 22|
|Utah||Yes||March 27 – May 1||Not mentioned.||May 1 – Restaurants, personal services businesses, gyms||April 22|
|Vermont||Yes||March 25 – May 15||Not mentioned.||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 15, the following may open.
April 20 – Construction, home appraisal businesses, property management, municipal clerks (each business can only have two workers in an office).
May 1 – Farmers’ markets.
May 18 – In-person retail businesses with 25% capacity.
|Virginia||Yes||March 30 – June 10||Class 1 misdemeanor: Jail for not more than 12 months, a fine of up to $2,500, or both.||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until June 10, the following may open:
May 15 – Nonessential retail stores and houses of worship can reopen at 50% capacity. This does not apply to certain counties in northern Virginia.
|Washington||Yes||March 25 – May 31||Criminal penalties pursuant to RCW 43.06.220(5) (categorizes this as a gross misdemeanor, for which the max penalty is 364 days in county jail or a fine of up to $5,000)||Although the stay-at-home order is in effect until May 31, the following have been allowed to reopen:
April 24 – Some construction projects can resume.
May 5 – State parks and recreational areas can open.
|West Virginia||Yes||March 24 – May 3||Order may be enforced by state or local law officials and by state and local regulatory and/or licensing bodies to the extent possible under West Virginia law.||May 4 – Small businesses with 10 or fewer employees, restaurants with takeaway service or outdoor dining, religious entities and funeral homes, personal services businesses may reopen.||April 27|
|Wisconsin||Yes||March 25 – May 13||Order may be enforced by any local law enforcement official. Punishable by up to 30 days imprisonment, a $250 fine, or both.||The stay-at-home order was to be in effect until May 26, but it was struck down by the state Supreme Court. The ruling allowed a complete reopening.||Decision made by individual hospitals|
|Wyoming||No (As of April 30)||May 1 – Gyms, barber shops, hair salons, and personal services businesses||April 24|