Chronic Pain Management Therapies in Medicaid: Policy Considerations for Non-Pharmacological Alternatives to Opioids
Although most Medicaid agencies cover services that can be used as alternatives to opioids for pain management, significantly fewer states have policies or procedures in place to encourage their use. Between March and June 2016, the National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) conducted a survey of all 51 Medicaid agencies to determine the extent to which states have implemented specific programs or policies to encourage or require non-opioid therapies for acute or chronic non-cancer pain. We contacted each Medicaid Director via email. In cases of non-response, we followed up with Medicaid Medical Directors. Ultimately, we received responses from 41 states and the District of Columbia.